大英博物館藏埃及木乃伊:探索古代生活

閉展倒數
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展覽資訊

 

 

 

 本展介紹生活於西元前900年至西元180年間的六位古埃及人。藉由這六位主角的故事,說明尼羅河畔生與死的點點滴滴。此外,科學家利用電腦斷層掃描技術(CT),推算木乃伊的年齡與性別。並探索不同主題、包括飲食、健康狀況、木乃伊的製作過程、宗教信仰與生活文化。

 


 

展覽名稱:大英博物館藏埃及木乃伊:探索古代生活

展覽日期:2017/11/14-2018/02/18

展覽地點:國立故宮博物院 圖書文獻大樓一樓特展室

聯繫電話:02-6616-6656

分區介紹

 
 

 古埃及的考古遺蹟為尼羅河谷地早期社會留下了獨一無二的紀錄。然而,大部分藝術與建築的設計皆遵循嚴格準則,擺脫不了刻板形象,以致我們從中所能瞭解的埃及過往居民日常生活情形有限。人類學與考古學的研究方法不僅能使我們判斷逝者的死亡年齡、性別,更可讓我們瞭解人體生物學、遺傳學、飲食、疾病蔓延、埋葬方法、木乃伊製作程序等重要面向。

 

 過去十年來,大英博物館利用最新科學方法研究館內木乃伊藏品。這些非侵入式的技術讓我們更深入了解尼羅河畔這片古老土地上的生活面貌。此項展覽將介紹六位生活在西元前900年至西元180年的古埃及人。新科技已能讓我們無需拆解包裹木乃伊的亞麻布,進而建構每具木乃伊的生活概況,描繪出他們是誰,他們的年齡、信仰與罹患的疾病。

 

神廟歌者木乃伊於倫敦皇家布朗普頓醫院進行CT掃描

 

 

 奈絲塔沃婕特與其三副棺槨於1880年抵達大英博物館之前,我們對她瞭解不多。每一副棺槨都以象形文字銘刻了奈絲塔沃婕特的名字,奈絲塔沃婕特一名亦有其意義:「屬於『華狄特』之眼的人」。「華狄特」之眼又稱荷魯斯之眼,「華狄特」則象徵守護與療癒。她的頭銜「家庭女主人」指出奈絲塔沃婕特為已婚女性。棺槨的風格與品質說明她來自古埃及主要宗教信仰中心底比斯(今名盧克索)。她出身富裕家庭,奈絲塔沃婕特的遺體經小心保存,是人造木乃伊的絕佳範例。




 

 防腐師在她過世後不久取出了最容易腐化的內臟,以防止腐敗。接下來,遺體以稱為泡鹼的天然鹽乾燥處理約35日。她的大腦被摘取之後即遭丟棄,心臟則因被視為智力與記憶的中心而留在原處。防腐師隨即在體內空隙處塞入各種材料,強化遺體,預防腐化。肝、肺、胃及腸被視為一個人的具體化身,所以分開保存。防腐師有時會將這些器官包裹成如小型木乃伊般,置於稱為卡諾卜壇的容器中。另外一種方式,則是像奈絲塔沃婕特的例子,將盛裝臟器的布包袱置回遺體內或擺放在遺體上。



 


 

 塔穆特木乃伊容器上的銘刻文字指出她是孔蘇莫斯的女兒,孔蘇莫斯是阿蒙神–諸神之王–的祭司。塔穆特出身上層家族,與父親都曾參與凱爾奈克神廟的祭典。凱爾奈克神廟是底比斯(今名盧克索)一帶最重要的宗教祭拜建築群。

 

 電腦斷層掃描顯示,在外層包覆物底下的遺體上擺放了許多護身符與其他宗教裝飾。這些物件被認為具有法力,可以保護逝者,亦可助她獲得永生。清晰的掃描影像讓我們可從形狀辨識大部分的護身符,掃描數據也可讓我們瞭解它們的材質。


 

 「華狄特」之眼,或稱荷魯斯之眼,是最受歡迎的古埃及護身符之一。根據一個重要的神話故事,荷魯斯神的右眼在一場戰爭中受創,但後來神奇地復原了。「華狄特」之眼後來成為完整的象徵,代表完全無缺的狀態,被認為可以保護配戴者,使其不受傷害。眼睛下方的線條代表獵鷹眼睛周遭的紋路,獵鷹則是荷魯斯的象徵。

 


 

 厄索魯住在底比斯(今名盧克索)北方約莫200公里處的艾赫米姆。華麗棺木上的銘刻文字告訴了我們他的名字與身分–與他的許多親戚一樣,厄索魯也是一位祭司。他為了服侍好幾位神祇,可能將時間分配予不同的神廟。防腐師小心地將厄索魯的身體製成木乃伊,並在他的遺體上放置了幾件護身符,例如手背上的「華狄特」之眼,以保護他,確保在來世獲得重生。塗金面具在這個時期是不尋常的特徵,讓厄索魯有了一張完美永恆的臉–黃金被視為象徵神祇的肌膚。



 

 多數祭司輪班工作,這個制度稱為「斐勒」,通常以四個月為一期,每期在神廟供職一個月,其他時間則履行神廟以外的職責,或是到另外一所聖殿工作,因為一個人可以同時身兼多處祭司。厄索魯在世的時代,多數祭司職位都是世襲,而他的許多家族成員擔任敬奉敏神的祭司。

 

 祭司們常以手持香爐的形象出現,香爐是喪葬與神殿儀式不可或缺的器物。香的成分包含任何燃燒後發出好聞氣味的物質,例如樹脂、花、葉與根。香稱為「瑟奈特哲」(「使神聖化」之意),能夠淨化空氣,確保神祇永遠都被愉悅的香氣所圍繞。


 

 雖然我們不知道她的名字,這位女士木乃伊容器上的銘文指出她是一位女祭司–是一位阿蒙神廟內殿歌者。她住在底比斯地區,在世的年代約為西元前800年,可能供職於凱爾奈克神廟。電腦斷層掃描顯示,她過世時的年齡約莫在35歲至49歲之間,生前也罹患各種齒牙疾病。

 

 通常女祭司與神廟歌者在喪葬儀式上都以年輕,配戴精緻珠寶的形象出現。我們在這位女士的腹腔中發現了數件護身符,而且身體表面散置了數不清的小金屬–可能是黃金–珠子。從她蓄的短髮看來,這位女祭司在特殊的場合可能會穿戴假髮,並搭配奢華的珠寶首飾。





 

 音樂是古埃及生活中重要的一部分,許多不同類型的古代樂器留存迄今,包括在宗教或世俗慶典中演奏的打擊樂器、管樂器及弦樂器。埃及神殿內,樂器演奏頗為尋常;由男性祭司主持的儀式,也有歌者配合吟唱聖歌。「內殿歌者」通常出身上層階級家族,應該位列阿蒙神女性大祭司的隨侍班底,能夠進入神殿中最神聖的區域。這位女祭司可能也彈奏豎琴或魯特琴,作為演唱的伴奏。


 


 

 在古埃及,被製成木乃伊的孩童似乎並不多。不過,到了羅馬時期,製作孩童木乃伊的習俗似乎開始盛行,

 

 電腦斷層掃描證實,這位男童過世時的年齡約為兩歲。這具木乃伊原本被認為是女孩,最近的電腦斷層掃描證實,它其實是男童的遺體。他的木乃伊容器面具塗金,且裝飾精美,顯見他出身上層家庭。這具幼童木乃伊由不同部分的容器包覆。他的頭部覆蓋著精緻塗金面具,使他與諸神連結;手中則握著一束雅緻的玫瑰與桃金孃。





 

 家庭單位是古埃及人的生活中心,也常出現在藝術作品中。逝者出現時,通常為家人環繞。

 

 古埃及人的理想核心家庭–由一位父親、一位母親與一位子女組成–也反映在神祇的世界。神祇常三位一起出現,例如俄賽里斯、伊希絲及祂們的兒子荷魯斯。

 


 

 當羅馬統治者於西元前30年佔領埃及時,製作木乃伊的習俗並未中斷。不過,在這段期間,製作木乃伊的技術與風格發生了演變。一項主要的創新是「木乃伊肖像」繪以逝者形象的木板的出現。這具年輕人木乃伊,便是最早帶著這類肖像運達歐洲的木乃伊實例之一。肖像中的年輕人有著深色捲髮、濃眉與大眼。他並未蓄鬚,顯示他年紀尚輕。電腦斷層掃描確認他過世時約在17至20歲之間,也顯示他體重過重,與畫中削瘦的面容恰恰相反。





 

 雖然木乃伊製作的習俗得獲保存,許多與木乃伊有關的作法卻大幅改變,其結果是融合了埃及、希臘、羅馬的喪葬習俗。在羅馬時期,防腐師先將防腐處理完畢的遺體置於一片木板上後,再包覆成木乃伊。這種木板不僅可保持遺體的完整,也是喪葬文字與圖繪的理想畫布。而羅馬時期,木乃伊的外觀獲得高度重視。珠寶、玻璃容器等日常用品取代了護身符陪葬品,而新的陪葬品–如木乃伊肖像–也開始出現。


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常見問答

 

 

Q:請問這次開展前提早購買票劵有優惠價嗎? 如何購買預售票?

A:

●早鳥優惠票250元:

銷售期間:9/16-9/30。

售票購票:Yahoo!超級商城、博客來、ibon售票系統。

 

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銷售期間:10/01-10/10。

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銷售期間:10/11-11/13。

售票通路:ibon售票系統、博客來、GOMAJI、Yahoo!超級商

城、udn售票網。

Q:展覽期間(2017/11/14~2018/2/18) 350元全票請問可以在哪裡買票? 

A:

●展期全票350元:

●售票通路:ibon售票系統、博客來、GOMAJI、Yahoo!超級商

城、udn售票網。

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A:詳見展覽資訊─購票資訊

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  3. 主辦單位營業時間:時藝多媒體 02-6616-9938 (週一至週五 上班時間11:00~17:30)。
  4. 各售票通路洽詢電話:

Q:請問購票當天就必須進場參觀嗎?

A:展覽票券上並無日期限制,於展覽期間內(2017/11/14~2018/02/18) 皆可使用,逾期無效。

Q:請問展覽營業時間?

A:
展覽時間:2017/11/14(二)-2018/02/18(一)  
開放時間:09:00am-17:00pm (最後進場時間為16:30)
展覽地點:國立故宮博物院 文獻大樓一樓特展室
 

Q:請問觀展中途可以離場再進場嗎?

A:一張票券限一人使用一次,憑票入場。
當天如需重覆入場,需至出口處蓋印出口章,並從入口處再次入場。
 

Q:請問可以帶寵物進展場嗎?

A:為維護觀賞品質,請勿帶寵物(導盲犬除外)進場參觀。

Q:請問展場可以拍照、錄影嗎?請問展場內可否飲食?

A:為展品著作權,展場內不可拍照攝影且展場內禁止飲食。

Q:展場內是否能攜帶雨傘?

A:請勿攜帶長柄傘(年長者拐杖除外)入場,短柄折傘請使用傘套或收進背包裡。

Q:是否有語音導覽?

A: 詳見展覽資訊─導覽資訊

(超商/網路預售票可享租借第二台5折價優惠,每張限優惠1台)

 

Q:如何申請團體導覽?如何申請學校團體參觀與導覽?
●團體預約導覽:20人(含)以上 可於兩週前預約團體導覽 ,人數未達及假日 (含國定假日 )不受理 。
●團體預約流程 : 於參觀日兩週前填寫團體預約單(下載)→ 傳真或寄email至票務專屬信箱→工作人員將於48 小時內回覆小時內回覆是否預約成功。

 

Q:我可以申請個人導覽嗎?
●個人導覽機 請於現場語音導覽租借處租借。
●個人語音導覽機租借,每台120元。有提供華語導覽與英文導覽服務。

 

Q:定時導覽是否不用預約,現場去排即可嗎?
●定時導覽平日(週一至週五) 2場次 11:00、14:00
●假日(週末及國定假日) 4場次 10:00、11:00、14:00、15:00
1.平日每場次以30人為限,假日每場次以20人為限
2.定時導覽須配戴子機,30元/台
3.定時導覽無提供預約服務

Q:請問有租借置物櫃或借放嬰兒車/輪椅的服務嗎?

A: 展館外有置物櫃,無借放嬰兒車/輪椅的服務。
置物櫃區域不提供保管責任,重要物品請隨身攜帶。

Q:請問紀念品區,是否須購票才能入場?

A:A:紀念品區為免票區,僅前往紀念品區購買商品不須另外購票,可直接從出口處前往紀念品區。
但現場會視平假日人流狀況進行入場人數管制(請依現場公告為主),請民眾務必耐心配合。

 

Q:如何前往展覽地點?

A:A:詳見展覽資訊─交通資訊

 

英文

Exhibit Info

 

Exhibition:Egyptian Mummies from the British Museum – Exploring ancient lives

Date:2017/11/14-2018/02/18

Venue:Exhibition Area ll,1F.Library Building, National Palace Museum

Contact:02-6616-6656

 

Introduction

 

This exhibition introduces six individuals who lived in ancient Egypt from about 900 BC to about AD 180. They have been carefully chosen to throw light on different aspects of life and death along the banks of the Nile. In addition, curators and scientists at the British Museum used the latest technologies, including Computerised Tomography scanning, to determine the age at death and sex of the mummified individuals, and to explore themes, such as diet, state of health, mummification process and religious practices in ancient Egypt.

 

Section Introduction

 

Section 1

Egyptian mummies: Exploring ancient lives

 

 Ancient Egyptian monuments are a unique record of these early societies, which developed in the Nile valley. However, most of the art and architecture was designed according to strict guidelines and dominated by formal imagery, so it offers limited insights into the daily lives of Egypt’s past inhabitants. Methods developed in anthropology and archaeology allow us not only to determine the age at death or biological sex of an individual; they also inform us about important aspects of human biology, genetics, diet, the prevalence of diseases, burial practices and the process of mummification.

 

 Over the past decades, the British Museum used the latest scientific methods available to study the Egyptian mummies in its collection. These non-invasive techniques provide insights into life in an ancient land defined by the river Nile. This exhibition presents six people who lived from about 900 BC to AD 180. Without the need to unwrap their mummified remains, new findings have enabled us to create a personal profile of each individual, painting a picture of who they were – their age, their beliefs and the diseases they suffered from.

 

The mummy of the temple singer begin CT scanned at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London

 

Section 2

Nestawedjat, a married woman from Thebes

 

 We know very little about Nestawedjat and her three coffins before they arrived at the British Museum in 1880. The name Nestawedjat, inscribed in hieroglyphs on each coffin, has a meaning: ‘The one who belongs to the wedjat eye’. Also known as the Eye of Horus, the wedjat was a symbol of protection and healing.

 

 Her title, ‘Lady of the House’, indicates that Nestawedjat was a married woman. The style and the quality of her coffins suggest that she came from Thebes (modern Luxor), a major religious centre in ancient Egypt. She belonged to a wealthy family. The body of Nestawedjat has been carefully preserved and provides an excellent example of artificial mummification.

 

Mummification in ancient Egypt

 

 Embalmers removed the most perishable internal organs soon after death to stop decomposition. Her brain, removed through the nose, was discarded but her heart, regarded as the centre of intellect and memory, has been left in place. The body was then dried in natron, a natural salt, for around 35 days. Empty spaces were then filled with a variety of materials to strengthen her body and prevent decay. The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were regarded as embodiments of the entire person and were preserved separately. Embalmers sometimes wrapped these organs like miniature mummies and placed them in vessels called canopic jars. Alternatively the packages were placed back inside or on top of the body, as in Nestawedjat’s case.

 

Section 3

Tamut, a Chantress of Amun

 

 Inscriptions on her case identify Tamut as the daughter of Khonsumose, a priest of the god Amun, king of the gods. As members of a high-status family, Tamut and her father would have taken part in rituals in the temple of Karnak, the most important religious complex at Thebes (modern Luxor).

 

 The CT scans show that many amulets and other ritual trappings were placed on her body under the wrappings. They were believed to have magical powers that would protect the deceased and help her to gain immortality. The clarity of the scans allows us to identify most of the amulets by their shapes. CT data also tells us which materials they were made from.

 

Four wedjat eye amulets

 

 The wedjat, or Eye of Horus, was one of the most popular ancient Egyptian amulets. According to an important myth, the god Horus’s right eye was injured in battle, but was later magically restored. The wedjat eye became a symbol for integrity, the state of being whole, and was believed to protect the wearer from injury or harm. The lines beneath the eye represent the markings around the eye of a falcon, the bird used to represent Horus. 

 

Section 4

Irthorru, a priest from Akhmim

 

 Irthorru lived in the town of Akhmim, situated about 200 km north of Thebes (modern Luxor). The inscriptions on his finely decorated coffin tell us his name and role – like many of his relatives, Irthorru was a priest. Serving several gods, he probably divided his time between different temples. Irthorru’s body has been carefully mummified and several amulets, such as a wedjat eye on the back of his hand, were placed on his body to protect him and ensure rebirth in the afterlife. The gilded mask gave him a perfect face for eternity – gold was thought to symbolise the skin of the gods. Typically masks covered the whole head but recent CT scans reveal that Irthorru’s mask only covers his face. A linen shroud cleverly hides the rest of his head.

 

Priesthood in ancient Egypt

 Most priests worked in rotation, known as a phylai, usually serving one month out of four. The rest of the time they attended to duties outside the temple or in another sanctuary, as individuals could hold several priesthoods simultaneously. By the time Irthorru lived, most positions were hereditary and many members of his family served in the priesthood of Min.

 

 Priests are usually portrayed holding an incense burner, an essential tool in funerary and temple rituals. Incense consisted of anything that would provide a nice smell when burnt, such as resin, flowers, leaves and roots. Known as senetjer (‘to make divine’), incense purified the air and ensured that the gods would always be surrounded by pleasant aromas.

Section 5

A temple singer from Thebes

 

 Although we do not know her name, the inscription on this woman’s cartonnage case tells us that she was a priestess – a Singer of the Interior of Amun. She lived in Thebes around 800 BC and probably worked at the temple of Karnak. We have no record of her personal life. CT scans show that she was probably between 35 and 49 years old when she died and suffered from various dental problems.

 

 Priestesses and temple singers are usually portrayed on their funerary equipment as young and wearing delicate jewellery. A few amulets were found inside this woman’s abdomen and numerous small metal – probably gold – pellets were scattered on top of her body. Her short hair suggests that she might have worn a wig for special occasions, possibly complemented with lavish jewellery.

 

 Music was an important part of ancient Egyptian life. Many antique musical instruments have survived, including a range of percussion, wind and string instruments. Musical instruments were regularly played in Egyptian temples. The rituals performed by priests were also accompanied by singers chanting hymns. Usually from high-status families, ‘Singers of the Interior’ would have been part of the chief priestess of Amun’s entourage and would have had access to the most sacred areas of the temple. This priestess may have played the harp or the lute as she sang.

Section 6

A young child from Hawara

 

 In ancient Egypt few children appear to have been mummified. However, during the Roman period the practice seems to have increased and many examples have been uncovered at the cemetery at Hawara. CT scans confirm that the boy was around two years old when he died. First considered to be the mummy of a girl, recent CT scans confirm that these are the remains of a young boy. His gilded and finely decorated cartonnage mask suggests that he came from an elite family. This mummy of a child is covered with several different pieces of cartonnage. A finely gilded mask has been placed over his head, associating him with the gods. He holds a delicate bouquet of rose and myrtle.

 

Family life in ancient Egypt

 

 The family unit was central to ancient Egyptian life and is often depicted in art. The deceased is usually shown surrounded by members of his or her family. The ideal nuclear family – comprising a father, a mother and a child – was mirrored in the divine world. Gods were often portrayed in triads, such as Osiris, Isis and their child Horus.

Section 7

A young man from Roman Egypt

 Mummification continued to be practised when Roman rulers took over Egypt in 30 BC. However, the techniques and styles used in mummification evolved during this period. One major innovation was the use of wooden panels depicting the deceased, known as ‘mummy portraits’. This mummy of a man is among the first mummies with such an image to reach Europe. The picture shows a young man with dark curly hair, thick eyebrows and wide eyes. He is beardless, indicating youth, and CT scans have confirmed that he was between 17 and 20 years old when he died. They also revealed that he was overweight, in contrast to the slim face shown in the portrait.

 

Funerary traditions in Roman Egypt

 

 Although mummification survived, many of the practices surrounding it changed greatly. The result was a fusion of Egyptian, Greek and Roman funerary customs. During the Roman period, wooden boards were sometimes placed inside a mummy’s wrappings under the embalmed body. While helping to keep the body together, the board was also an ideal canvas for funerary texts and images. By the Roman period great emphasis was placed on the mummy’s outer appearance. Everyday objects, such as jewellery and glass vessels, were placed in graves instead of amulets and new funerary items were introduced, such as mummy portraits.

 

Tickets Info

 

 

Notices & Information

To ensure the safety of the objects and to enhance your viewing pleasure:

● Please refrain from speaking in a loud voice, having children running around, eating and drinking, smoking, or improperly disposing of wastepaper or other articles.

● All forms of photography and filming in the exhibition areas are prohibited.

● Do not take any dangerous items into the exhibition areas. (including:long-handle umbrella、tripod、scissors、knife)

● Please do not bring the pets into the exhibition areas. (excluding guide dog).

● Camera and video equipment must be placed within your carry-in bag or deposited in a locker before entering the exhibition areas.

● Backpacks, travel bags or luggage should be deposited in a locker before entering the exhibition areas.

● If there are too much visitors, please follow the instruction staff to line up

● Do not to buy extra ticket for souvenir area. please directly from the exit to souvenir area.

● For any ticket-related question, please inquire staff in box office or contact 02-66169938 (Mon-Fri 11:00-17:30) for more information.

 

Transportation

 

BY MRT

1. Take the MRT Tamsui-Xinyi Line to the Shilin Station and take bus R30 (Red 30 - Low-floor bus) to the National Palace Museum. Other routes that will take you to and near the Museum plaza are buses 255, 304, 815 (Sanchung – NPM Line), M1, Minibus 18 and Minibus 19.

2. Take the MRT Wenhu Line to the Dazhi Station and take bus B13 (Brown 13) to the National Palace Museum, alighting before the Front Facade Plaza of the Museum.

3. Alternatively, visitors may choose to take the Wenhu Line and get off at Jiannan Rd. Station, then take bus B20 (Brown 20) to NPM's front entrance (Main Building).

 

BY BUS

Fares:

1. Coin: NT$15 (per section)

2. EasyCard:

Regular: NT$15 (deducted per section)

Student: NT$12 (deducted per section)

Discount: NT$8 (deducted per section)

1. Take R30、BR20 to the main entrance of NPM.

2. Take 225、304、815、S18、S19、BR13 to the main entrance of NPM.

 

BY CAR

1. Going north on the Sun Yat-sen Freeway, exit at BinJiang Street in Taipei, take BinJiang Street and turn left onto the DaZhih Bridge. At the end of the bridge, take BeiAn Road and then go through the ZiQiang Tunnel. Turn right at the intersection of GuGong Road and ZhiShan Road to reach the Museum.

2. Driving south on the Sun Yat-sen Freeway, take the Neihu exit, turn left onto the expressway, and proceed to Section 1 of NeiHu Road. Continue to the traffic circle and proceed as above. (From the elevated portion of the freeway, exit at TiDing Boulevard, turn right at the end of the ramp, proceed to NeiHu Road, and follow as above.)

3. From Taipei's eastern district (Keelung Road), take the JhengCi Bridge to TiDing Boulevard, and continue as above.

4. From Taipei's Nankang district, take HuanDong and TiDing Boulevards, proceeding as above to the ZiQiang Tunnel and then the Museum.

5. From Taipei's northern districts (Shihlin and Peitou), take Zhongshan Road or WenLin Road to ZhongZheng Road, turn left, and proceed to the intersection of ZhiShan Road, which will take you past GuGong Road and to the Museum as indicated above.

 

Audio guide

 

Schedule audio guide

●Limited to 30 person on weekdays, and limited to 20 person on weekends. (Adopted on-site registration )

●Need to equipped with a machine,NTD30/each

 

 

Personal audio guide

●On-site rental machine NTD120/each

●People with disabled ID can rent one machine for free.

 

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